Developmental Milestones pt. ‪2‬

This week we have the second part to the episode!! In this second series, we take you on a journey of how your little one or anyone’s little one develops from 1 to 5 years old. Learn about how a child develops from the social, language, cognitive and physical aspects. If you want to listen now you can do so by CLICKING HERE.


At this point we have discussed what occurs up to one year of age. We know that by now children should walk, scribble and use single words. Of course, like mentioned previously these milestones and when they are reached can vary from child to child. But if certain milestones are not being met for a prolonged period of time it may mean something more serious is going on. Again, don’t hesitate to speak to your primary care provider whenever you have any of these concerns.

Note: this information will not suffice for medical advice.

The information below was obtained from the CDC. With that said, let’s get into this week’s episode:


♡ 18 Months

Social/Emotional

o Likes to hand things to others as play

o May have temper tantrums

o May be afraid of strangers

o Shows affection to familiar people

o Plays simple pretend

o May cling to caregivers in new situations

o Points to show others something interesting

o Explores alone but with parent or caregiver close by


Language/Communication

o Says several single words

o Says and shakes head “no”

o Points to show someone what they want


Cognitive

o Knows what ordinary things are for (i.e.: telephone or spoon)

o Points to get the attention of others

o Shows interest in a doll or stuffed animal by pretending to feed it

o Points to one body part

o Scribbles on their own

o Can follow 1-step verbal commands without any gestures


Movement/Physical Development

o Walks alone

o May walk up steps and run

o Pulls toys while walking

o Can help undress themselves

o Drinks from a cup

o Eats with a spoon


♡ 2 years

Social/Emotional

o Copies others, especially adults and older children

o Gets excited when with other children

o Shows more and more independence

o Shows defiant behavior

o Plays mainly beside other children, but is beginning to include other children, such as in chase games


Language/Communication

o Points to things or pictures when they are named

o Knows names of familiar people and body parts

o Says sentences with 2 to 4 words

o Follows simple instructions

o Repeats words overheard in conversation

o Points to things in a book


Cognitive

o Finds things even when hidden under two or three covers

o Begins to sort shapes and colors

o Completes sentences and rhymes in familiar books

o Plays simple make-believe games

o Builds towers of 4 or more blocks

o Might use one hand more than the other

o Follows two-step instructions

o Names items in a picture book such as a cat, bird, or dog


Movement/Physical Development

o Stands on tiptoe

o Kicks a ball

o Begins to run

o Climbs onto and down from furniture without help

o Walks up and down stairs holding on


♡ 3 years

Social/Emotional

o Copies adults and friends

o Shows affection for friends without prompting

o Takes turns in games

o Shows concern for a crying friend

o Understands the idea of “mine” and “his” or “hers”

o Shows a wide range of emotions

o Separates easily from mom and dad

o May get upset with major changes in routine

o Dresses and undresses self


Language/Communication

o Follows instructions with 2 or 3 steps

o Can name most familiar things

o Understands words like “in,” “on,” and “under”

o Says first name, age, and sex

o Names a friend

o Says words like “I,” “me,” “we,” and “you” and some plurals (i.e.: cars, dogs, cats)

o Talks well enough for strangers to understand most of the time

o Carries on a conversation using 2 to 3 sentences


Cognitive

o Can work toys with buttons, levers, and moving parts

o Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people

o Does puzzles with 3 or 4 pieces

o Understands what “two” means

o Copies a circle with pencil or crayon

o Turns book pages one at a time

o Builds towers of more than 6 blocks

o Screws and unscrews jar lids or turns door handle


♡ 4 years

Social/Emotional

o Enjoys doing new things

o Plays “Mom” and “Dad”

o Is more and more creative with make-believe play

o Would rather play with other children than by himself

o Cooperates with other children

o Often can’t tell what’s real and what’s make-believe

o Talks about what they like and what their interests are


Language/Communication

o Knows some basic rules of grammar, such as correctly using “he” and “she”

o Sings a song or says a poem from memory such as the “Itsy Bitsy Spider” or the “Wheels on the Bus”

o Tells stories

o Can say first and last name


Cognitive

o Names some colors and some numbers

o Understands the idea of counting

o Starts to understand time

o Remembers parts of a story

o Understands the idea of “same” and “different”

o Draws a person with 2 to 4 body parts

o Uses scissors

o Starts to copy some capital letters

o Plays board or card games

o Tells you what they think is going to happen next in a book


Movement/Physical Development

o Hops and stands on one foot up to 2 seconds


♡ 5 years

Social/Emotional

o Wants to please friends

o Wants to be like friends

o More likely to agree with rules

o Likes to sing, dance, and act

o Is aware of gender

o Can tell what’s real and what’s make-believe

o Shows more independence

o Is sometimes demanding and sometimes very cooperative


Language/Communication

o Speaks very clearly

o Tells a simple story using full sentences

o Uses future tense; for example, “Grandma will be here.”

o Says name and address


Cognitive

o Counts 10 or more things

o Can draw a person with at least 6 body parts

o Can print some letters or numbers

o Copies a triangle and other geometric shapes

o Knows about things used every day, like money and food


Movement/Physical Development

o Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longer

o Hops; may be able to skip

o Can do a somersault

o Uses a fork and spoon and sometimes a table knife

o Can use the toilet on her own

o Swings and climbs


♡ Red Flags to Look For:


Normally walking is achieved by 15 months with a cut of of 18 month. Single words with meaning is achieved by 12 months with a cut of at 18 months

  • If they are not walking without support or speaking one word sentences with meaning by 18 months that may be a red flag

Normally, 2-3 word sentences are achieved by 24 months with a cut of at 30 months or 2.5 years

  • If your child cannot perform two to three word sentences by 2.5 years of age this may be a red flag

In general, you want to wait 6 months for milestones to be acquired in 2 year olds

In summary you can use these quick tips to remember this:


By 2 years you can run on 2 feet, climb 2 steps (one at a time), 2 parallel lines, 2 word sentences, follow 2 step commands, turn 2 pages of a book, toilet training


Secret Tip: think of toilet or spell it as, two-ilet to make this association clear!


By 3 years they do things that 2 year olds do but better


By 4 years remember the 5 C’s:

Coordination

Color

Cross

Counts to 10

Cooperative play


By 5 years the mnemonic is: a person with 5+ parts, 5 word sentences, Hi-5 with friends


There is another quick hack we use known as the development of mental tasks with cubes so for kids up to 3 years of age you take their age and multiply it by 3. The number that results is the number of cubes a child can stack to make a tower. So, if they are 1 they can stack 3 cubes, if they are 2 they can stack 6 and if they are 3 they can stack 9.


At 3 years they can build a gate or a bridge of 3 cubes and at 4 years they can make a 4 step ladder





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Disclaimer: The Content on our podcast/website is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

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